In Sri Lanka, Physiotherapists were directly involved in treating patients with paralysis following Polio epidemic in 1950s (The first Rehabilitation Unit for Children with Polio, with specialized equipment and a Hydrotherapy pool was opened at the Lady Ridgeway Hospital, Physiotherapy Department). Many Neurology Rehabilitation Departments were started at various Hospitals in many provinces and Special Rehabilitation Hospital was started at Ragama (North of Colombo) to care for long term Neurological Illnesses such as Hemiplegics (Stroke), Paraplegics,or Motor Neuron Diseases. There were many specialist Neurology Units started at the General Hospitals under the Consultant Neurologists. Neuro-Intensive Care Units were established to provide Intensive treatments with Mechanical Ventilation for patients with Myasthenia Gravis, or Guillain Barre Syndrome
Neuro-Surgery is an Established Specialty at many Provincial Teaching Hospitals, where Neurosurgeons are attached and Neurosurgical Units along with their ICUs are functioning. Physiotherapists are all attached to the Neuro-Surgical or Neuro-Trauma Units. As soon as the Surgery is performed, therapeutic Interventions such as Chest Physiotherapy, positioning and total mobilisation programme is launched to improve the Quality of Life.